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石陨石

东讯网 2020-12-02 17:48

陨石指来自地球以外太阳系其他天体的碎片,绝大多数来于太阳系的火星和木星之间的小行星带,少数来自月球和火星或已经瓦解消失的小行星等天体。石陨石是发现的陨石中最常见的一大类型。其主要或全部由硅酸盐矿物,特别是铁镁硅酸盐组成的陨石的总称。根据有无球粒结构分为球粒陨石和无球粒陨石两大类。陨石是地球以外的宇宙流星脱离原有运行轨道或成碎块散落到地球上的石体,是从宇宙空间落到某个地方的天然固体,也称“陨星”。它是人类直接认识太阳系各星体珍贵稀有的实物标本,极具收藏价值。由于多数陨石落在海洋、荒草、森林和山地等人烟罕至地区,而被人发现并收集到手的陨石每年只有几十块,数量极少。

Meteorites refer to debris from other celestial bodies in the solar system other than the Earth. Most of them come from the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter in the solar system, and a few come from the moon and Mars or asteroids that have collapsed and disappeared. Stone meteorites are the most common type of meteorite found. It is a general term for meteorites composed mainly or entirely of silicate minerals, especially iron-magnesium silicate. According to the chondrite structure, it is divided into two categories: chondrite and achondrite. Meteorites are stone bodies that cosmic meteors outside of the earth deviate from their original orbits or fall into pieces on the earth. They are natural solids that fall from space to a certain place, and are also called "meteorites." It is a precious and rare physical specimen that humans directly know the stars of the solar system, and is of great collection value. Because most meteorites fall in sparsely populated areas such as oceans, grasses, forests, and mountains, only a few dozen meteorites are discovered and collected each year, and the number is very small.

石陨石上硅酸盐矿物如橄榄石、辉石和少量斜长石组成,也含少量金属铁微粒,有时可达20以上。密度3至3.5。石陨石占陨石总量的95%。1976年3月8日15时,吉林地区东西12公里,南北8公里,总面积500多平方公里的范围内,降一场世界罕见的陨石雨。所收集到的陨石有200多块,最大的1号陨石重1770公斤,名列世界单块陨石重量之最。吉林陨石表面,有黑色、黑棕色熔壳和大小不等气印。化学组成成分为SiO2占37.2,MgO2占3.19,Fe占28.43。主要矿物有贵橄榄石、古铜辉石、铁纹石和陨硫铁。次要矿物有单斜辉石、斜长石等。石陨石根据起内部是否含有球粒结构又可分为两类:球粒陨石、不含球粒陨石。球粒陨石根据化学-岩石学分类被分为:E、H、L、LL、C五个化学群类。E群中铁镍金属含量最高,形成在一个极端还原的环境中,其橄榄石和辉石中几乎不含氧化铁。C群中的铁镍金属含量最低(或不含铁镍金属成分),形成在一个相当氧化的环境中,其橄榄石和辉石中的氧化铁含量比值最高。H、L、LL群的形成环境界于E群和C群之间,其特点也界于E群和C群之间。此块石铁陨石,品相完美、特征明显,玻璃陨石是在高空、高温、高压和高速下形成的,所以它有明显的形成特证:内部高纯度无杂质,通体布满致密的小气泡,外部有融壳,融壳上有流纹,外部和融壳下有时会产生大的气印。

Stone meteorites consist of silicate minerals such as olivine, pyroxene and a small amount of plagioclase, and also contain a small amount of metallic iron particles, sometimes up to 20 or more. Density 3 to 3.5. Stone meteorites account for 95% of the total meteorites. At 15:00 on March 8, 1976, a meteorite rain that was rare in the world fell within a range of 12 kilometers from east to west and 8 kilometers from north to south in Jilin area, covering a total area of more than 500 square kilometers. There are more than 200 meteorites collected. The largest meteorite No. 1 weighs 1770 kilograms, which is the heaviest single meteorite in the world. On the surface of Jilin meteorite, there are black, black-brown fusion crust and airmarks of varying sizes. The chemical composition is SiO2 accounts for 37.2, MgO2 accounts for 3.19, Fe accounts for 28.43. The main minerals are chrysolite, bronze pyroxene, iron pyrite and pyrite. The secondary minerals include clinopyroxene and plagioclase. Stone meteorites can be divided into two categories according to whether they contain chondrites inside: chondrites and non-chondrites. Chondrites are classified into five chemical groups according to chemical-petrological classification: E, H, L, LL, and C. The E group has the highest iron and nickel metal content, formed in an extremely reducing environment, and its olivine and pyroxene contain almost no iron oxide. Group C has the lowest iron-nickel metal content (or does not contain iron-nickel metal components), formed in a fairly oxidizing environment, and the ratio of iron oxide content in olivine to pyroxene is the highest. The formation environment of the H, L, and LL groups is between the E group and the C group, and its characteristics are also between the E group and the C group. This stone iron meteorite has perfect appearance and obvious characteristics. The glass meteorite is formed at high altitude, high temperature, high pressure and high speed, so it has obvious formation characteristics: high purity inside without impurities, and the whole body is full of dense small bubbles , There is a melted crust on the outside, there are flow lines on the melted crust, and sometimes large airmarks are produced on the outside and under the melted crust。

石陨石具有极高的科研价值,让无数科学家为之疯狂的“宝贝”。地球上的陨石除玻璃陨石外,分布几乎是均匀的,在有人们居住的地区是容易被发现,而在荒无人烟的地区,有记录的十分罕见,北极、南极地区,现在去考查的人们极易拾得陨石,也是情理之中的事情。根据美国科研局最新消息,可能性最大的是玻璃陨石是巨大的陨石或彗核撞击地球,使地球表层岩石熔融高速溅出坑外急速冷却而成。近几年,国内逐步兴起了一股玻璃陨石保藏热潮。玻璃陨石保藏圈的日益扩大,加之其非常稀有,让玻璃陨石在全球的报价,从本来的几美元每磅,攀升到现在堪比钻石的巨额数字。三四年间,不只玻璃陨石的报价飙升,国内玻璃陨石保藏市场也日渐成形具有很高的收藏价值。

Stone meteorites have extremely high scientific research value, making countless scientists crazy for them. Except for glass meteorites, meteorites on the earth are almost evenly distributed. They are easy to find in areas where people live, but in uninhabited areas, there are very rare records. The Arctic and Antarctic regions are very easy for people to investigate now. Picking up a meteorite is also logical. According to the latest news from the US Bureau of Scientific Research, the most likely glass meteorite is a huge meteorite or comet nucleus hitting the earth, causing the surface of the earth to melt and splash out of the crater and rapidly cool down. In recent years, a wave of glass meteorite preservation has gradually emerged in China. The ever-expanding collection of glass meteorites, coupled with their very rarity, has made the global quotation of glass meteorites from a few dollars per pound to a huge number comparable to diamonds. In the past three to four years, not only the quotations of glass meteorites have soared, but the domestic glass meteorite preservation market has gradually formed with high collection value。